The posture of each sculpture has an important meaning in Buddhist iconography, which varies based on the position of the statue, it's adornments, and hand placement.
Subduing Mara Position (Seated Items)
The Buddha is seated with the left hand palm-up on his lap, and the right hand resting on his knee, pointing down to the ground slightly touching the earth. This position is called “Subduing Mara” position or better known as “calling the Earth to witness” position. which is a popular posture and the temple’s principal image when depicting the Buddha.
The posture represents an important moment in the Buddha’s journey. As the Buddha was meditating under the Bodhi tree, he was visited by the demon Mara and his three beautiful daughters. Mara and his daughters attempted to subvert the Buddha to stop his meditation and prevent him attaining enlightenment.
The Buddha touched upon the Earth with his right hand and asked for support. Mother Earth heard his call, drowned Mara and his daughters, and allowed the Buddha to continue meditating and reach enlightenment.
This is an important symbolic image in Buddhism. It represents the Buddha close to the end of his life on Earth, soon to enter the afterlife in nirvana. The Buddha lays on his right side, using his right hand to prop up his head.
The Standing Buddha has a variety of different meanings in Buddhist iconography, which can be determined by the positioning of the hands within the image. With his feet firmly planted side by side, the Buddha has stopped in his journey, either to repel conflict or teach the Four Noble Truths after achieving enlightenment. The hand positioning can signify a number of things, including: compassion, patient understanding, or the ending of conflict.
To see the Buddha in royal attire is a rare sign. The Buddha will only wear this attire when going to visit the King and Queen as a sign of respect to his parents, who are also the royalty. Statues in this style will feature the Buddha adorned from head to toe in elegant trappings.